Moscow Federal City Russian Federation
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Founded in 1370 by the monk Feodor, the Simonov Monastery was once the richest in Moscow. Its Uspensky Cathedral was erected in 1405 and later enlarged during the reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533 to 1584). Apart from its importance as a religious center, the cloister guarded the southern approaches to Moscow and was heavily fortified. The multi-storied bell tower was added in the late 1600s.
In 1923, the Simonov Monastery was abolished by the Soviet regime and by 1930 most of its buildings had been demolished to make way for an automobile plant. 19th Century author Sergei Aksakov, the most famous secular figure buried here, was transferred to the Novodevichy Cemetery. Surviving structures include three conical towers, a chapel, and some auxiliary buildings.